## Cadence

Cadence is defined as the number of steps per minute, how many times the left and right foot combined hit the ground.

Cadence is calculated by counting the number of steps and dividing this by the time in which those steps were taken.

• 140-160 SPM: recreational

• 160-180 SPM: experienced

• above 180 SPM: elite

SPM- steps per minute

## Contact time

Contact time refers to the time your foot remains in contact with the ground during each step, the time from the moment your foot touches the ground until toe-off.

• Sprinters: 115-150 ms

• Distance: 170-400 ms

• Experienced: 170-220 ms

ms- millisecond

## Flight time

Flight time refers to the time neither foot is in contact with the ground between consecutive steps of the left to the right foot or vice versa. From the toe-off of one foot to the moment the other foot touches the ground.

• Recreational: below 95ms

• Experienced: 90ms to 150ms

• Elite: above 150ms

## Swing and stride time

Swing time refers to the time one foot remains in the air in between consecutive steps of the same foot from the toe-off of one foot to the moment the same foot touches the ground.

Stride time refers to the time of one full step cycle of a foot from the moment the foot contacts the ground to the moment the same foot touches the ground for the second cycle. This includes the contact and swing time for one foot.

## Footstrike

Footstrike is calculated from the pressure measured with the various sensors in the insole.

Footstrike X is equal to the location of the centre of pressure (COP) at initial ground contact relative to the foot width.

• below 50%: medial, inside foot landing

• above 50%: lateral, outside foot landing

Footstrike Y refers to the location of the COP at initial ground contact relative to the foot length.

• 0-33%: rearfoot strike

• 33-66%: midfoot strike

• 66-100%: forefoot strike

## Balance

Balance indicates how much more or less you use one foot over the other. A balance equal to 0% means you use both feet equally.

When your balance is negative you use your left foot more and when it is positive you use your right foot more.

• below 0%: more left foot

• 0%: balance between left & right foot

• above 0%: more right foot

• optimal: -2% - 2%

## Step and stride length

The step length is the distance covered between two consecutive placements of the left to the right foot or vice versa.

The stride length is the distance covered between two consecutive placements of the same foot.

## Impulse

Impulse is the sum of all the forces acting on your body for the duration of a single step. Higher forces over a longer time will result in higher impulse, lower forces and/or a shorter time will result in lower impulse.